Saturday, February 2, 2008

The History of Yogyakarta

People have lived in Central Java and the Yogyakarta area since time immemorial as over the centuries they have been attracted by the rich soil caused by the numerous volcanic eruptions. Earliest recorded history dares from the 9th century and was dominated by Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms that gave rise to the magnificent temples such as Prambanan, Ratu Boko, Kalasan, Sambisari and Borobudur found in this area.

Yogyakarta itself dates back to the 18th century. In the early 18th century, the Muslim Mataram Kingdom of the time was ruled by Pakubuwono II. After he passed away, there was a conflict between his son and his brother which was encouraged by the Dutch who were trying to colonize the region on a 'divide and rule' basis.

The Kingdom was divided into two regions namely Surakarta Hadiningrat kingdom under the rule of Sunan Pakubuwono III, and Nyayogyakarta Hadiningrat kingdom under the rule of Sultan Hamengku Buwono I. He was the founder of the present line of Sultans who still live in the Kraton and play important role in Javanese culture. The second kingdom was later called Yogyakarta, now better known as Yogyakarta.

After the independence of the Republic of Indonesia was proclaimed, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII launched a statement that the Kasultanan and Kadipaten (the two royal regions), belonged to the Republic of Indonesia as a part of the whole area of the Indonesia Republic. Since then, it has been known as Yogyakarta Special Region and was given provincial status in 1950 in recognition of its important role in the fight for independence.

No comments: